For bunny owners, pee and poop take center stage! Monitoring your fluffy friend’s bathroom habits provides a window into their health and happiness. Rabbits have unique elimination needs – producing two kinds of poop and peeing up to 10 times per day! But how can you know if your rabbit’s output is normal or a sign of trouble? Get the inside scoop on proper pee color, ideal poop volume, and what urine changes warrant a vet visit. We’ll also share pro tips to promote a healthy urinary tract and keep your rabbit’s digestive system humming! Buckle up for this hopping tour through all things rabbit poop and pee!

Normal Amounts of Pee and Poop in Rabbits

Rabbits normally produce a significant amount of poop and pee each day. This is because they are herbivores that eat a fibrous diet, so their digestive system has to work hard to extract nutrients. On average, a healthy rabbit will produce 200-300 pellets of poop per day. They will also urinate fairly frequently, around 8-10 times per day. However, the amount and frequency can vary quite a bit between individual rabbits based on factors like diet, age, activity level, and health status.

In baby rabbits under 3 months old, they may poop up to 500 pellets per day since their digestive system is still developing. Adult rabbits around 1 year old will produce the normal range of 200-300 poops daily. Senior rabbits over 5 years old may poop less, around 100-200 pellets per day. The poop pellets are typically round or oval shaped, and compacted. Rabbits produce two different types of poop – fecal pellets and cecotropes. Cecotropes are softer and are re-ingested by the rabbit to obtain additional nutrients.

For pee, most rabbits urinate about 8-10 times per 24 hour period. They tend to pee more at night and first thing in the morning. The urine is typically yellow/orange in color and semi-transparent. An adult rabbit's bladder can hold about 40 ml of urine, or 1.5 ounces. So they urinate this amount each time, which can form a puddle several inches in diameter. Monitoring your rabbit's poop and pee output daily helps ensure it stays within normal range. Significant increases or decreases in frequency or volume can indicate a potential health issue.

Different Types of Rabbit Poop

Rabbits produce two main types of poop – fecal pellets and cecotropes. These serve different digestive purposes:

Fecal pellets – These are the round, dry brown poops that you most commonly see when cleaning your rabbit's habitat. They are compact and firm when passed, then quickly dry out. These form the bulk of a rabbit's poop production, around 200-300 pellets per day on average. Fecal pellets contain the indigestible fiber parts of the diet that could not be broken down during digestion.

Cecotropes – Also called "night feces", these are soft, pudding-like poops covered in a shiny mucus coating. They form in a part of the rabbit digestive tract called the cecum. The rabbit will eat these directly from its anus since they are full of nutrients like vitamins, minerals, proteins and fats that are necessary for the body. Cecotropes allow rabbits to extract additional nutrition from their food.

In addition, you may see the following abnormal poop types in rabbits:

Small or misshapen pellets – Can indicate dehydration or dental issues making it hard to chew food.

Very large/oversized pellets – Can indicate intestinal blockage preventing normal poop passage.

Soft cecals – The cecotropes lose their mucus coating and look like a mushy brown paste. This can happen from excess calcium or stress.

Diarrhea – Watery stool from diet issues, infections, parasites or other illness. Requires veterinary attention.

Normal rabbit poop can range from round balls to small elongated pellets. The consistency, shape and volume can provide insight into your rabbit's health.

Rabbit Pooping More than Normal

It can sometimes be concerning if your rabbit is pooping significantly more than its normal daily amount. For an adult rabbit, producing more than 300-400 fecal pellets per day can indicate an issue. There are several possible reasons your rabbit may start pooping excessively:

Diet change – If you recently changed your rabbit's diet, either to a new food or introducing more treats, this sudden increase in fiber or nutrients can cause more poop temporarily. Their body needs time to adjust.

Obstruction – A partial intestinal blockage from ingested materials like carpet or hair will cause the rabbit to poop frequently but in small amounts. There may be straining.

Diarrhea – Watery diarrhea from bacterial infection or parasites can increase poop frequency. Weight loss, lethargy or GI distress may also occur.

Medication side effects – Certain antibiotics or dewormers can lead to loose stool or very soft cecotropes as the gut microbiome rebalances.

Stress – External stress factors like loud noise, disruption to their environment, travel, or bonding with a new rabbit can all increase gut motility and poop output.

Underlying illness – Diseases affecting nutrient absorption like dental disease, cancer, or kidney disease can result in compensatory pooping to eliminate more waste.

If your rabbit is producing significantly more poop for more than 1-2 days, take it to your exotic vet for evaluation. Testing and treatment of the underlying issue can prevent complications. Make sure your rabbit stays well hydrated with fresh water during diarrhea episodes. Temporary probiotics or fiber supplements may also be helpful.

Best Diet for Healthy Rabbit Poos

To keep your rabbit's poop healthy, the ideal diet should include:

  • Plenty of grass hay – At least 70% of diet as timothy or orchard grass. Provides fiber for healthy motility.

  • Moderate leafy greens – Around 1 packed cup daily of romaine, parsley, cilantro, kale, carrot tops. Provides moisture and nutrients.

  • Limited pellets – 1/4 cup high fiber pellets per day maximum for adult rabbits.

  • Occasional treats – A small amount of fruits, vegetables or herbs as treats a few times a week.

  • Unlimited clean water – Helps keep poop soft and full hydration aids healthy gut function.

  • Exercise – At least 3-4 hours per day of activity helps motility.

  • Probiotics – Can help stabilize gut microbiome after antibiotics or diarrhea episodes.

Avoid feeding high starch or sugar items like bread, cereal, seeds, nuts and fruits. The excess carbohydrates and calcium can disrupt healthy poop formation. Gradually transition diet changes over 2-3 weeks to allow the rabbit's sensitive gut to adapt. Monitor poop daily – small uniformly shaped and consistent pellets are ideal. Consult your exotic vet if poop habits change significantly.

How Often Should Rabbits Urinate?

Rabbits do not have a very large bladder capacity relative to their size. As prey animals, they have evolved to eliminate waste frequently to keep themselves clean and odor-free. This helps them avoid predation in the wild.

On average, healthy rabbits will urinate around 8-10 times per 24 hour period. Some rabbits may go as often as 12 times per day. They tend to be most active urinating at night and first thing in the morning. Rabbits are crepuscular, meaning most active at dawn and dusk.

Younger rabbits under 6 months old may urinate more frequently, even up to 20 times per day. Senior rabbits over 7 years old may only urinate about 6 times per day since they are moving slower and drinking less.

Ideally, your rabbit should urinate a steady stream in a consistent amount each time. You may hear them making grunting sounds as they empty their bladder. Normal urine is typically yellow or pale orange, and semi-transparent with no odor. Watch for any signs of straining, dribbling urine, blood, unusual color, or very frequent urination which requires veterinary attention.

Problems to Look for in Rabbit Urine

While checking your rabbit's litter box, keep an eye out for any of these potential problems in their urine:

  • Blood or red tinge – Indicates urinary tract infection or bladder stones. Requires antibiotics and further diagnostics.

  • Cloudiness or opacity – Can signify increased cellular debris from infection or crystals. Have your vet analyze a urine sample.

  • Black tarry appearance – Presence of blood digesting internally. Requires x-rays and critical care.

  • Straining or dribbling urine – Difficulty fully emptying their bladder may indicate a blockage from stones, tumor or stricture.

  • Leaking urine – Inability to hold urine can indicate uterine or bladder issues in does. Get imaged for abnormalities.

  • Excessive frequency – Increased urination can result from diabetes, kidney disease or diuretics. Check glucose and kidney values.

  • Odor – Strong ammonia smell can reflect bacterial contamination or infection.

  • Volume change – Marked increase or decrease in amount voided could indicate disease.

  • Position change – Sitting in urine or empirical posture shows discomfort. Assess for UTI.

Any deviation from your rabbit's normal urine habits warrants further veterinary investigation to diagnose the underlying cause and provide appropriate treatment. Prompt action helps prevent complications like dehydration, kidney damage or sepsis.

What Color Should Rabbit Pee Be?

A healthy rabbit's urine can range from pale yellow to bright orange in color. The exact shade will be determined by the concentration of waste products being excreted from the bloodstream. Normal rabbit urine is transparent or only slightly cloudy, with no odor.

Here are the typical urine colors in rabbits, from normal to abnormal:

  • Pale/light yellow – Normal pigment concentration, well hydrated

  • Bright/dark yellow – Concentrated waste, adequate hydration

  • Orange – Concentrated bilirubin pigment, normal

  • Red – Blood present, indicates infection or stones

  • Brown – Liver dysfunction, jaundice, dietary issues

  • Green – Bile pigment, intestinal or liver disease

  • Blue – RARE, metabolic defect

  • Black/tarry – Digested blood from internal bleeding

  • White/opal – Severe hydration issues, kidney dysfunction

The shade can vary based on dietary intake and hydration status, but red, brown, green or black urine is always abnormal. Consult your exotic vet if the urine color seems unusual or concerning to you. Proper hydration helps maintain a lighter yellow to orange urine color in healthy rabbits.

Urinary Tract Diseases in Rabbits

There are several common urinary tract diseases that can affect rabbits:

  • Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) – Bacterial infection of the bladder, urethra or kidneys. Causes bloody, painful urination. Diagnosed by urine culture and treated with antibiotics.

  • Bladder Stones – Mineral deposits that form in the bladder and block urine flow. Requires surgery for removal in severe cases. Diet change can help prevent recurrence.

  • Kidney Stones – Mineral aggregates that lodge in the ureters blocking urine outflow. Surgery or catheterization may be needed for removal.

  • Uterine Cancer – Does are prone to uterine adenocarcinoma, which can obstruct urine flow. Diagnose via ultrasound and bloodwork. Ovariohysterectomy is the treatment.

  • Kidney Disease – Progressive renal insufficiency leads to abnormal urine. Catch early through bloodwork to manage with diet and fluids.

  • Cystitis – Bladder inflammation from infection, crystals or trauma. See bloody urine, straining, and frequent small urinations.

  • Diabetes – Excess glucose spills into urine causing increased thirst and urination volume. Caught on bloodwork.

Prompt veterinary care is key for urinary tract issues to provide relief of discomfort, treat any infection, and resolve blockages before lasting kidney damage occurs. Relieving stress and maintaining proper hydration can help prevent urinary tract flare ups.

How to Promote Good Urinary Health

You can help promote urinary tract health in your rabbit through these methods:

  • Ensure adequate hydration – Always provide fresh, clean drinking water. Flavor water with herb infusions if rabbit isn't drinking enough.

  • Feed optimal diet – Focus on grass hay, greens, limit calcium rich foods. Avoid high carb/sugar items.

  • Add water to fresh foods – Soak leafy greens in water before feeding to increase moisture intake.

  • Offer canned pumpkin – High moisture content and fiber help urine production. Give 1-2 tablespoons daily.

  • Encourage exercise – At least 3-4 hours per day helps stimulate urination.

  • Clean litter box frequently – Avoid ammonia build up from urine that could cause discomfort.

  • Limit stress – Comfortable habitat, hide box, affection, bonded companion can reduce anxiety.

  • Annual vet visit – Wellness exam, urine test and bloodwork help catch problems early.

  • Investigate signs – Monitor amount, color, straining, odor and clumping of urine for changes.

Promoting urinary tract health prevents recurrent issues like infections, incontinence, and dangerous blockages that could have serious consequences. Be attentive to your rabbit's urination habits daily.


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